探索世界最好的方法,是旅遊。但當旅遊無法發生的時候(沒錯,就是在說你,新冠肺炎),以遠方城市作為主題的畫作能更作為我們心靈的寄託,讓身在故鄉,心到遠方。從繁華城市紐約、倫敦,到自然開闊的安地斯山脈,讓我們跟著下面這十五幅作品一起旅遊吧!

The best way to see the world is, undoubtedly, to travel. But when travel isn’t possible, paintings of faraway cities and stunning landscapes can transport your mind. From New York City to London, Cairo to the Andes, travel the world with these 15 artworks.

 

《更大的大峽谷》,大衛.霍克尼,1998
A Bigger Grand Canyon (1998), David Hockney

大衛.霍克尼的作品《更大的大峽谷》運用了非常鮮豔的色彩,捕捉了美國亞利桑那州的自然奇景,並注入了藝術家自身的情感。在1980年代早期,霍克尼曾經拜訪過大峽谷,並製作了一幅以此為題的照片拼貼。到了1990年代晚期,這位英國的藝術家重溫了這個主題,並劃下了這幅橫跨60面畫布的鉅作。

Boasting David Hockney’s ever-vibrant color palate, A Bigger Grand Canyon  depicts the natural wonder in all its artful glory. In the early 1980s, Hockney visited the Grand Canyon and created a photo-collage of the site. The British artist returned to the subject in the late 1990s, when he painted the magnificent vista across 60 canvasses.

 

《落日下的國會大廈》,克勞德.莫內,1903
The Houses of Parliament, Sunset (1903), Claude Monet

莫內最出名的作品大概是他那對睡蓮的光影描繪,倫敦這座古老的英國城市也曾是他筆下最鍾愛的主題之一。在1899-1901的短短三年間,莫內畫了近100次泰晤士河,更創作了一系列英國國會大廈在不同的時間、天氣狀況下的作品。

While Claude Monet is perhaps best known for his serene depictions of water lilies, the city of London was one of the French Impressionist’s favorite subjects. Monet painted the Thames nearly 100 times between 1899 and 1901, and created a series of paintings portraying the Houses of Parliament at different times of day and in varying weather conditions.

  

《從梵谷住處眺望巴黎景象》,文森.梵谷,1887
View of Paris from Vincent’s Room in the Rue Lepic (1887), Vincent Van Gogh

荷蘭傳奇印象派畫家梵谷曾與他弟弟西奧(Theodorus van Gogh)一起在法國蒙馬特居住過一段時間。這幅《從梵谷住處眺望巴黎景象》讓我們透過藝術家視角,一窺當時巴黎的天際線。直得注意的是,在這幅作品中,梵谷並未使用他強烈的厚塗法以及平行筆刷,而是採用了更偏向點畫派的技巧,讓畫面看起來更加輕巧柔和。

Legendary Dutch Impressionist painter Vincent Van Gogh lived for some time with his brother Theo in Montmartre. View of Paris from Vincent’s Room in the Rue Lepic is one of several depictions the artist created of the Parisian skyline from his window. Here, Van Gogh departs from the sweeping brushstrokes that defined his oeuvre, to employ the stunted brushstrokes that characterize the technique of pointillism.

 

《下野黑髮山的霧降瀑布》,葛飾北齋,1835
Kirifuri Waterfall at Mount Kurokami in Shimotsuke Province (1835), Katsushika Hokusai

日本江戶時期的浮世繪畫師葛飾北齋,是藝術史上最有名的日籍藝術家之一,以其對自然動態的捕捉以及對江戶時代常民生活的刻畫聞名。《下野黑髮山的霧降瀑布》中75公尺高的霧降瀑布的高聳險峻與旁邊瞻仰的民眾形成鮮明對比,畫面下放飛濺的水花對比出水流湍急,將自然的能量定格於畫版之上。

One of art history’s most celebrated Japanese painters and printers, Katsushika Hokusai is well-known for his arresting natural landscapes and the portrayal of Japanese life during the Edo period. Kirifuri Waterfall at Mount Kurokami in Shimotsuke Province portrays a stunning scene in the Japanese landscape, evoking the energetic serenity common in his oeuvre.

  

《台夫特一景》,約翰尼斯.維梅爾,1660-1661
View of Delft (1660-1661), Johannes Vermeer

《台夫特一景》是十七世紀荷蘭畫家維梅爾三幅以家鄉為主題的作品之一。此類作品非常稀少,因為在這個時期,城市街景寫真的作品並不常見。也正是透過維梅爾畫面中大量的細節,我們得以勾勒出十七世紀知識之城台夫特的城市樣貌。

Johannes Vermeer’s 17th-century oil painting, View of Delft, is one of three depictions the Dutch artist created of his hometown. View of Delft, as was The Little Street and House Standing in Delft, was notably uncommon for the time period, as portrayals of cityscapes were rare. Here, Vermeer offers an intensely detailed portrayal of Delft in the mid-1600s on a small canvas spanning only one square meter in size.

 

《亞爾盛開的果園》,文森.梵谷,1889
View of Arles, Flowering Orchards (1889), Vincent Van Gogh

梵谷對於這座法國南部城市春天風光的描繪,聚焦於一處繁花盛開的果園,蔓延的蘭花和生機勃勃的田地座落在運河兩岸,遠方矗立著聖托菲姆教堂和聖查理學院。

Van Gogh’s blossoming depiction of Arles affords a charming view of the French city in springtime. Pictured, are sprawling orchards and lush plots of farmland on the banks of a canal, and set to the backdrop of Saint-Trophime and College St. Charles.

 

《清真寺裡的祈禱者》,尚-李奧・傑羅姆,1871
Prayer in the Mosque (1871), Jean-Léon Gérôme

法國藝術家傑羅姆在1868年的開羅之旅後,結合旅遊中的見聞完成了作品《清真寺裡的祈禱者》。清真寺內的建築、裝飾最早可以追溯到西元七世紀,然而在畫家造訪的十九世紀,該座清真寺已經遭到毀損。因此,畫面中祈禱者正在進行的儀式非常可能不是畫家在現場留下的第一手紀錄。傑羅姆醉心於東方文化,曾多次前往中東地區旅遊。因此普遍相信《清真寺裡的祈禱者》是結合了他豐富的旅遊經驗、以及一些照片或素描而誕生的作品。

French-born Jean-Léon Gérôme  painted a mosque in Cairo following his visit to Egypt in 1868. The interior dates back to the 7th century, but the building was derelict by the time Gérôme saw it in person. Therefore, it’s unlikely that the artist witnessed a service here firsthand. Gérôme traveled the Middle East extensively, however, and was fascinated by local practices. It’s believed that Prayer in the Mosque is informed by his travels, as well as photographs and sketches.

  

《托利多風景》,艾爾.葛雷科,1596-1600
View of Toledo (1596-1600), El Greco

文藝復興時期西班牙巨匠葛雷科的代表作品之一,《托利多風景》以一種極具感情的方式記錄下了這座西班牙城市。作品中充滿了這位藝術家的代表特色,陰沈、不祥的烏雲在空中翻滾,深綠色的草地透出一絲陰森,灰白色的建築物看起來冰冷無機。葛雷科為了畫面,稍微改變了建築物的順序,但這仍然不影響這幅作品的偉大之處。

One of only two known landscapes painted by the legendary El Greco, View of Toledo is an emotive depiction of the Spanish city. As was common in El Greco’s work, this painting is characterized by a dark, ominous sky over rolling green hills and cold stone buildings. El Greco rearranged some of the city’s buildings for his expressive composition, but it remains one of the mannerist artist’s most recognizable and celebrated paintings.

 

《加達湖》,古斯塔夫.克林姆,1913
Malcesine on Lake Garda (1913), Gustav Klimt

馬爾切西內,一個座落在加達湖畔的、隸屬於義大利維羅納的一個小城鎮是奧地利籍藝術家克林姆的私房景點。作品以輕快、活潑的配色與筆法描繪了小鎮恬適的鄉村風情。遺憾的是,這幅《加達湖》連同克林姆的其他十二幅作品,一起在二戰時被納粹在依門朵夫堡的一場大火中被燒為灰燼,從此我們只能從資料畫面中緬懷這些作品了。

Located on the shores of Lake Garda, Malcesine is a Veronese municipality that the Austrian painter  Gustav Klimt took to fondly.  Malcesine on Lake Garda is a buzzing depiction of the rustic landscape, portraying an air of easy serenity. Among 12 other paintings by Klimt,  Malcesine on Lake Garda was destroyed in the Schloss Immendorf castle fire set by the Nazis in World War II.

  

《窗外的景色,坦吉爾》,亨利.馬諦斯,1912
Window at Tangier (1912), Henri Matisse

 

繪於1912年,《窗外的景色,坦吉爾》完美的展現了馬諦斯的後野獸派美學。畫家曾經造訪過這座位於摩洛哥的城市兩次,並深深的被其中瀰漫的伊斯蘭藝術吸引。也因此,馬諦斯的作品中總是程度不一的受到藍色啟發——一種當時候流行於北非的顏色,這幅作品亦是如此:層層疊疊堆疊出來的藍,是天空、是遠方的海,更是窗邊的影子,配上窗外摩洛哥式的平頂建築,透著一股閒適自在幽靜。

A fantastically bold example of Henri Matisse’s post-Fauvist aesthetic, Window at Tangier was painted in 1912. Matisse visited the Moroccan city twice, and took great interest in Islamic art. A prevalent color throughout North Africa, Matisse was inspired by the color blue throughout his career. Varying shades of blue serve as the predominant color in Window at Tangier,  alongside a particularly flat approach to the landscape.

 

《安地斯之心》,弗雷德里克.埃德溫.丘奇,1859
Heart of the Andes (1859), Frederic Edwin Church

美國最重要的風景畫家邱奇在十九世紀時曾兩度踏上前往南美洲的旅程。他在厄瓜多待了九週之久,並在過程中繪製了大量的風景素描和水彩作品。《安地斯之心》結合了這些作品,將邱奇對於安地斯山脈中植被的變化細緻地描繪出來,巨幅的畫作中每一寸都滿了哈德遜河派的寫實、田園的美。

American landscape painter Frederic Edwin Church embarked on two extensive journeys throughout South America in the 19th century. He traveled through Ecuador for nine weeks, and subsequently produced a number of inspired sketches and watercolors. Heart of the Andes employs the untouched, pastoral aesthetic common in the Hudson River School.

  

《(神曲)闡明佛羅倫斯》,多梅尼科.迪.米凱利諾
La commedia illumina Firenze (1456), Domenico de Michelino

對於義大利詩人但丁來說,大概沒有什麼——即使是他一生摯愛的女人碧翠絲——比他的家鄉佛羅倫斯更珍貴了。這一幅同樣出自文藝復興時期義大利畫家之手的《(神曲)闡明佛羅倫斯》,將但丁作品《神曲》中的三個重要場景展現在觀者眼前:畫面左邊是地獄,中間則是煉獄,依照《神曲》內容,右邊應該是天堂,最接近上帝的地方,而畫家則是依照佛羅倫斯的形象繪製。儘管熱愛家鄉,但但丁在一場政治鬥爭中被流放,再也沒有回到心愛的家,晚年客死異鄉,令人唏噓不已。

Nothing – perhaps not even his beloved Beatrice – was more precious to Italian poet Dante Alighieri, than his home city of Florence.  La commedia illumina Firenze depicts the author of  The Divine Comedy in three seamless parts; to the left is hell, towards the middle is Purgatory, and to the right (symbolically closest to God) is the city of Florence, from which Dante was tragically exiled until his death for political reasons. The poet died in Ravenna, but remains one of Florence’s most important and celebrated historical figures.

  

《卡爾.約翰大街的傍晚》,愛德華.孟克,1982
Evening on Karl Johan Street (1892), Edvard Munch

表現主義畫家孟克的作品總是令人感到些許的不適,這幅描繪了奧斯陸傍晚路上情景的《卡爾.約翰大街的傍晚》亦是如此。置於前景,眼神空洞、臉色蒼白的人群,稍遠的甚至已經面目模糊。儘管背景的天色看上去一片祥和,整幅畫還是令觀者惴惴不安,無法判斷畫中的人們究竟是吃完晚餐輕鬆地走在路上散步,還是一隻不祥的送葬隊伍。

Edvard Munch’s haunting depiction of a zombie-like crowd takes place in Oslo on Karl Johan Street. While the backdrop is serene, with a warm evening glow, the painting evokes an entirely unsettling procession in the Norwegian capital.

  

《夜遊者》,愛德華.霍普,1942
Nighthawks (1942), Edward Hopper

《夜遊者》是藝術史中最能夠代表美國的傑作之一。霍普從紐約市格林威治大道上的一間小餐館得到靈感。儘管場景在美式餐館,畫中仍傳達了一些能夠超越地理疆域、更為普世的精神:現代城市中人們生活的疏離感與孤獨感。

Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks is one of the most iconic American masterpieces in art history. Hopper drew inspiration from a diner on the corner of Greenwich Avenue in New York City; though the dark, still nature of the subject affords the painting a timeless quality that transcends geographical boundaries.

 

《黃金之城蘭卡中覺醒的昆巴卡納》,不詳,約1605
The Awakening of Kumbhakarna in the Golden City of Lanka (c. 1605)

昆巴卡納是印度神話中的巨人,惡魔羅剎那的弟弟。據說他沈睡了一個世紀之久,直到被羅剎那喚醒,來抵禦侵略正在侵略黃金之城蘭卡的猴子與熊組成的軍隊。蘭卡是印度民間故事中的黃金之城,目前公認其位置就是現在的斯里蘭卡。

Kumbhakarna was a giant in Indian mythology. He is said to have slept for a whole century until his demon brother, Ravana, awoke him with news that armies of monkeys and bears were attacking the city of Lanka. Lanka is a city in Hindu folklore, but it is identified with modern-day Sri Lanka.

 

 

Word: Rachel Gould

Image: National Gallery of Australia、維基百科、Alamy Stock Photo、Culture Trip

Source:  Culture Trip

 


 

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