秘魯藝術家 Ana Teresa Barboza 訪談
Ana Teresa Barboza's portrait, photographed in studio｜安娜．特蕾莎．巴博扎的個人照，攝於工作室
延伸閱讀：自然的允諾：藝術家 Ana Teresa Barboza 作品欣賞
How does your Peru background influence your works, whether that be in a social, political, or environmental sense?
祕魯長久以來遺世獨立，歷史上似乎未曾有一個國家能代表這塊土地上所有的文化、理解各種不同住民的差異與需求、為他們的福祉設想。體制總是會想在安第斯山脈和亞馬遜河的森林裡套用城市的模式，不考慮這些山區截然不同的文化背景或語言。這些豐盛的多元價值極具啟發性，但同時這個國度在許多方面都極為匱乏；不過不論是哪一個面向的祕魯，藝術與文化處處可見，無從遁逃。在秘魯旅行，會發現單是一個地區內就有多種地理和物質現實，也會了解不同區域的古代文明是如何發展出不同的技術，去適應惡劣的氣候與地理條件。編織就是其中一項重要的技術。秘魯擁有悠久的織物歷史，在棉花的使用上大約五千年，將蘆葦或托托拉草 (譯註：莎草科植物，與台灣用於編織草蓆的藺草是同科) 等植物纖維用於編織則有一萬年歷史。儘管殖民時期許多織物的智慧都消失了，但還是有很多傳統聚落使織物的傳統得以存續。多虧了紡織品，我才能夠了解那些存儲在織物中、與自然週期相關的完整實踐和知識鏈──也許這就是對我影響最大的事情。
Peru has been culturally segregated for a long time. It seems that there has never been a country in history that can represent all cultures on this land, understanding the varied demands of each inhabitant, and conceiving for their public welfare. The system always attempts to apply the urban model in the forests of the Andes and Amazon River, regardless of the differences of cultural backgrounds and the languages of these regions. It is inspiring and enlightening to have such abundant diversity; however, this country is extremely scarce in many aspects. Art and culture are deeply rooted in every side of Peru, there is no escape. When travelling in Peru, you may notice various geological sceneries and material realities that can be discovered in one region, and also come to understand how ancient civilizations in varied areas developed assorted technologies in order to adapt to such severe climate and geological conditions. Weaving is one of the significant traditional technologies that can be long traced to Peruvian history. Cotton has been used for around 5000 years; plant fibers for instance, reed or totora, have been used in 10,000 years of history. Although many textiles have been lost during the colonial period, there are still numerous settlements that preserve traditional weaving practice in order for the tradition to be inherited. It is textile that allows me to explore and understand all related knowledge of natural cycles stored in textiles, perhaps this is the thing that has a great influence on me.
Natural dye process, photographed by Mariel Reyes｜植物染工序過程，由瑪麗爾·雷耶斯拍攝
We understand you have a deep connection with manual work (embroidering, weaving or sewing) because of your grandma. What about your relationship with nature?
Every summer in my childhood I have been camping on the beach. My father would load everything onto the car and take us to camp an hour south from Lima. What I like the most is the feeling of stepping on the beach when I first get out of the car. The Peruvian coastline are all deserts, Lima is also a rain-free city. Stepping away from the city is an opportunity to ease that my parents arranged every summer. They taught us how to fish, learn to watch the sea, to ride waves, explore all marine animals, learn how to set a campfire and play hide and seek at night.
3. 妳與自然環境和草藥治療效果的親密關係，是否從孩提時代就已開始? 妳對自然的理解，如何融於生活之中?
Has your relationship with nature and herbal medicine long been in your life from childhood? How do you now incorporate your understanding of nature into your life?
Although Lima is a city with western customs, herbs are deeply rooted in our daily lives. Lima residents come from varied places of Peru, they also bring local knowledge of all plants to the city. If you travel outside of Lime, you will find Preuvian's daily life is tightly connected to natural herbs. Due to the inherited ancestral knowledge, it allows Peruvians to have a certain understanding of the curative effects of plants. My understanding of nature is integrated in my daily activities. Including consciously choosing what I consume, knowing that every choice has its result, and there is a production chain behind everything.
Natural dye fabric used in Ana's work, photographed by Mariel Reyes｜安娜創作的植物染布料，由瑪麗爾·雷耶斯拍攝
You have been making a parallel between the process of handcraft and the process of nature. With plant dying, your works seem to interact, in a much more complex fashion, with the beings and elements in the natural environment. What were the thoughts and ideas that went behind this plant dye decision?
Each plant dye experiment is like an exercise in knowing the most intimate environment to me, to see how the nuances remain from plant essences on the textile document the soil and the environment in which they grow. This is kind of observation practice, where you may explore the changes of plants according to the varying colours over seasons. And if we take all the ecological footprints that have carried these plants into consideration, therefore these extracted colours may connect us to a place. Plant dye is also my practice of understanding. Understanding the medicinal properties and local knowledge contained in these plant essences, will allow me to incorporate the natural cycle into my daily life. Knowledge connects us with our environment and makes us aware of the necessity of respect to all beings on earth.
Plants collected by Ana, photographed by Mariel Reyes｜安娜採集的植物，由瑪麗爾·雷耶斯拍攝
5. 植物染是妳倡議生物多樣性的行為之一嗎? 植物染的過程與結果如何影響了妳的創作?
Could plant-dye practice be considered as part of the advocate of biodiversity? How does the process and result of the natural dye test affect your works?
Peru is known for its distinctive geography, diverse climates and ecosystems with a great biodiversity. Plant dye not only reveals the variety of species, but also noted the knowledge and traditions of specific regions stored by these plants. Therefore, plant dye is also a practice to defend cultural diversity. The works I created by using plant dye fibers are the result of experiments. The data of natural cycles, climates and soils all developed on the fibers by means of natural dye, we are still surprised by the surrounding environments that we are accustomed to. Nature is constantly changing, and so do the works.
Ana learning the natural dye in Chincheros, photographed by Mariel Reyes｜安娜於欽切羅染坊的學習過程與染色工序，由瑪麗爾·雷耶斯拍攝
6. 過去你會使用合成纖維在作品中，現在則更多使用來自保有傳統編織技法的聚落所產製的動物或植物纖維。這個選擇 與工業紡織業造成的的環境汙染、或保留傳統手藝有關嗎? 請多讓我們知道你和這些祕魯傳統聚落的故事。
You had used Synthetic fiber in your work before, but now you work more with locally produced animal and plant fibers. Is this choice related to the environmental pollution caused by the industrial textile industry? Or your intention of preserving traditional handicraft and textile? Please share more about your stories with these communities where it preserves traditional weaving practice.
Both. The choices of natural fibers are related to the awareness of environmental pollution caused by the industrial textile industry as well as preserving traditional textile practice. Knowing the processes of industrial textile behind all the glamour made me aware that chained pollutants are caused by consuming these fibers. On the other hand, people in my hometown have been defending the preservation of traditional textiles and its knowledge for a long time. As I entered the textile industry, I began to have more knowledge about varied fibers produced in my nation, and understand how particular fibers are made into fabrics in different regions, also inevitably keen to explore the origin of textiles.
Approaching communities where it preserves traditional practice has been time consuming. Oddly, communicating with them is just like a foreigner in your own country. These communities allow me to understand how little I know about my culture, and also understand how they see the world. For instance, I visited Chincheros community during a trip to Cusco to learn how they produce plant dye.
Source: Nunu Fine Art