「促進暗黑旅遊=尊重思維+學習+理解」
文化旅遊既可以從供求雙方的角度來表徵,也可以從理論和實踐的角度來表徵。(Dimitrova,2015年)文化旅遊與跨文化交流聯繫在一起。文化影響著不同社會和思維方式的行為規範和模式,包括文化在建立溝通方式過程中的作用和意義。文化旅遊背景下的跨文化交流被認為是「我們」與「他們」,朋友或敵人之間的特定互動,在這種互動中進行文化交流。 (Dimitrova,2015年)本文的目的還在於揭示文化旅遊業如何作為一種工具,以更好地跨文化理解。台灣人在文化和政治方面是亞洲最開明的國家,過去經歷了很多挑戰和積極的變化,當談到適應新的旅行概念時,這是非常有可能的,而且非常有希望。此外,與大多數市場細分方法相比,生活方式可以為營銷組合的發展和管理提供更多見解(Lawson等人)。生活方式用於細分市場,因為它提供了廣泛的日常客戶視圖(Plummer,1974年)。生活方式變量的使用可以通過查看遊客的活動、興趣和觀點來幫助他們理解遊客。知道一個人在生活中某一方面的行為可以使我們預測他在其他方面的行為(Feldman&Thielbar,1975)。通過運用生活方式方法來了解遊客是顧客,銷售人員則可以製定更有效的營銷計劃(Schewe&Calantone,C. D.和Calantone,R. J.1978)。

Promoting dark tourism = Respectful mindset + Learning + Understanding
Cultural tourism can be characterized both from the perspective of supply and demand sides and also from the point of view of theoretical and practical approach. (Dimitrova, 2015) Cultural tourism is connected with the intercultural communication. The culture influences the norms and patterns of behavior of different societies and mindsets, including the role and significance of culture in the process of creating communication styles. Intercultural communication in the context of cultural tourism is thought as a specific interaction between ‘us’ and ‘them’, friend or enemy, in which cultural exchange takes place. (Dimitrova, 2015) The thesis also aims to reveal how cultural tourism serves as a tool for better cross- cultural understanding. As mentioned earlier, Taiwanese are relatively the most open-minded people in Asia in cultural and political aspects, went through a lot of challenges and positive changes in the past, when it comes to adapting a new concept for traveling is highly possible and very promising. In addition, compared to most market segmentation methods, lifestyles could give added insight for the development and management of the marketing mix (Lawson et al.). Lifestyle is used to segment the market because it provides a wide, everyday view of customers (Plummer, 1974). The use of the lifestyle variable provides an understanding of tourists by looking at their activities, interests, and opinions. Knowing how an individual behaves in one area of his life may allow us to predict how he will act in others (Feldman & Thielbar, 1975). Through applying the lifestyle approach to understand the tourist as a customer, the marketers could develop more efficient and effective marketing programs (Schewe & Calantone, C. D. and Calantone, R. J.1978.) 



對台灣遊客的行為有正確的認識,對旅行的動機和心態也有較深的了解,因此更容易向他們介紹「暗黑旅遊」的概念。我們之前曾討論過台灣人的文化禁忌(閱讀更多:東西方文化習俗差異與禁忌:以暗黑觀光為例 ),因此,無論何時來到巴黎,地下墓穴( Les Catacombes de Paris)仍然是一個較為小眾的目的地。無論是對產業從業者還是對台灣遊客來說,暗黑旅遊都必須以兩種方式發展。吸引更多台灣遊客前往巴黎地下墓穴的最佳方法是事先進行一些有趣的深度教育,並開始為所有年齡段的目標人群創建合適的暗黑旅遊套餐。促進暗黑旅遊目的地的發展與其他大眾旅遊有不同的方程式,我將用一個方程式來幫助自己:「促進暗黑旅遊=尊重的思維方式+學習+理解」。在台灣遊客方面:由於台灣已經在學校接受過「生死教育」,因此與更多年長的台灣遊客相比,年輕一代肯定會更廣泛地接受拜訪死亡相關景點的服務。可以預見,在不久的將來,對於年輕一代的台灣遊客提供前往巴黎暗黑旅遊目的地,將有潛在的蓬勃發展的趨勢。
Having the righteous understanding of the Taiwanese tourists’ behavior, also motivation and mindset toward traveling, it is easier to introduce them the concept of ‘dark tourism’. We discussed before about cultural taboos for Taiwanese, so whenever comes to Les Catacombes de Paris is still a niche target group for now, it has to develop in both ways, for the industry and for Taiwanese tourists. The best way to attract more Taiwanese tourists to Les Catacombes de Paris is to educate profoundly beforehand with some interesting inputs and start to create suitable dark tourism packages to all-age target groups. Promoting a dark tourism destination has different equation than other mass tourism, I will help myself with an equation, which is: Promoting dark tourism = Respectful mindset + Learning + Understanding. In the aspect of Taiwanese tourists: since Taiwan already has ‘death-life education’ in schools, the younger generation certainly has wider acceptance for visiting death in a tourism sector, compare with more elderly Taiwanese tourists. It is promising to expect that, in the near future and for the younger generation, it will have a potential booming tendency of visiting dark tourism destination like Les Catacombes de Paris for the Taiwanese tourists.

但是,暴露和吸引更多台灣遊客參觀巴黎的地下墓穴的最大挑戰是「如何」,這存在著一定的難度:因為台灣遊客的習慣往往是「旅行,是探索美麗的人事物」,旅行中的每一件事都必須美麗舒適,因為他們花了錢來在這次旅行上,來放鬆、享受美食以及體驗台灣人沒有的美麗事物,而不是學習或適應新文化的對立面。台灣遊客長途跋涉前往歐洲的主要心態,就是簡單地享受各個方面的美麗。然而,巴黎的地下墓穴並不是台灣遊客的標準之選。在台灣有一個不成文的術語,稱為「美學旅遊」。字面上的意思是,在旅行方面,大多數台灣人都希望一切都變得美麗,旅行、通勤時的穿著方式,旅行中的所有細節都必須足夠美麗和快樂,以充實一個人的標準和視覺感受。這也受到日本文化的影響,更不用說當今的西方文化、社群媒體、旅遊和KOL等。台灣人有一種時髦的行為,他們喜歡通過在社交媒體上與朋友分享很多精美的照片來「炫耀」他們的旅行,告訴朋友他們的假期是多麽的愉快,而不是真正記錄旅行的見聞或旅行的真實面目。因此,必須精心設計包括巴黎地下墓穴在內的旅遊套餐,我將在下一章中討論更多內容。
However, the challenging part to expose and to attract more Taiwanese tourist to visit Les Catacombes de Paris is ‘how’, it has some certain difficulties: For the habits of Taiwanese tourists is tend to be ‘travel, is to find the beauty’, everything in the travel has to be beautiful and comfortable because they paid this trip to enjoy, to relax, to eat good food and to see beautiful things that they can not see in Taiwan, rather than learning or adjusting to a opposite of a new culture. That is the major mentality of Taiwan tourists when they go all the long way to Europe, is to simply enjoy the beauty of every aspects possible. Yet Les Catacombes de Paris is not the standard beauty for Taiwanese tourists; in Taiwan, they have an unwritten term called ‘aesthetics tourism’. It literally says when it comes to traveling, most of the Taiwanese people want everything to be beautiful, how they wear while traveling, commuting and all the details in travel has to be beautiful and joyful enough to fullfill a person’s standard and visual sensation; it also got influenced by Japanese culture, and not to mention the Western culture, mass social media, travel and beauty influencers nowadays. There is a trendy behavior that Taiwanese people like to ‘showoff’ their travels by sharing a lot of beautifully-made pictures on their social media to their friends that they are currently enjoying a nice vacation instead of really documenting the real side of the travel or reviews. So, a tourism package including Les Catacombes de Paris has to be well-designed, I will discuss more in next chapter. 

   

圖/文/ Christina Tseng

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