法國巴黎以其明亮的燈光和浪漫的氛圍而聞名,而它的黑暗面卻鮮為人知。貝克爾在《觀光業:超額預訂》一書中說:「在二十一世紀,法國已成為世界上遊客量最大的國家,擊敗了美國。法國是最受歡迎的目的地,更成了旅遊雜誌封面最受歡迎的寵兒——不論是巴黎夜生活或法國鄉村的隱秘角落,都是人們喜愛的專題。」「每天都有遊客爬上巴黎鐵塔(the Eiffel Tower ),或者從計程車或火車上首次欣賞她優雅的輪廓,這個經驗代表他們進入了象徵著外國旅行的城市。這就是人們為什麼願意清空儲蓄帳戶或刷滿信用卡的額度、擠進飛機,然後飛去世界另一端,只為瞥上一眼。」
Paris is better known for its bright lights and romantic ambiance than its darker side, in the book ‘ Overbooked’, Becker said “ In the twenty-first century France has become the most visited country in the world, beating out the United States, the former champ. France is the reigning diva of all things travel; the favorite cover for travel magazines – the newest wrinkle in Paris nightlife or a hidden corner of the French countryside- and the favorite destination.” “Every day tourists climb the Eiffel Tower or catch their first awestruck view of its elegant silhouette from taxis or trains bringing them into the city that has become the symbol of foreign travel, the reason why people empty their savings accounts or load up their credit cards to squeeze into an airplane and fly off for a glimpse of another world.

「巴黎鐵塔是無處不在的旅行和浪漫的象徵,並且概括了為什麼巴黎是尋找這種新體驗的旅客首選,這絕非偶然。」(貝克爾,2013年)。然而,大多數遊客都是來巴黎旅遊的。在談到暗黑旅遊(dark tourism)這一術語時,城市中仍然有很多地方可以探索。法國是全球遊客人數最多的歐洲國家。(歐洲統計局,2015年)對於台灣遊客而言,他們最喜歡的旅遊目的地清單主要是亞洲國家,如日本、香港、韓國和泰國;但是歐洲國家他們的最愛,則是法國和義大利。
" It is no accident that the Eiffel Tower is the ubiquitous icon of travel and romance and epitomizes why Paris is the first choice of travelers looking for that new experience.” (Becker, 2013) However, most of the tourists came to Paris for all those hot-spot destinations; there are still plenty of places in the city to explore when it comes to the term of dark tourism. France is the most visited European country for worldwide tourists. (Eurostat, 2015) For Taiwanese tourists, the list of their favorite travel destinations is mostly Asian country like Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Thailand; but as for European country; their favorites are France and Italy.

台灣距離法國相對較遠,從台北到巴黎的直航需要大約13個小時,而且機票價格昂貴。因此,儘管台灣遊客喜歡充滿了歷史性和教育性的目的地,但他們並不熱衷於相對不輕鬆的旅遊目的地。如何改變這種局面,使雙方受益,是本文的重點。巴黎的黑暗旅遊並不是所有遊客的主要目的地,而是一個非主流市場。對暗黑旅遊感興趣的遊客可以探索墓地——歷史的黑暗角落以及遠離大眾旅遊勝地的地下區域。
Taiwan is relatively very far away from France, direct flight from Taipei to Paris takes about 13 hours and not to mention it is not cheap. Therefore, Taiwanese tourists are not keen for visiting relatively unpleasant tourism destinations, even though they are full of historical and educational purposes. How do we transform this situation and benefit to the both sides is the focus of this thesis. Dark tourism in Paris is not the main destinations for all tourists, it is a niche; dark tourists can explore the cemeteries, dark corners of the history, and underground areas hidden away from the mass tourism. 

拉雪茲神父公墓 Père Lachaise Cemetery
拉雪茲神父公墓(Père Lachaise Cemetery)是世界上最著名的公墓之一,位於巴黎市郊,無論遊客是否來巴黎進行暗黑旅遊,都經常會於此停留參訪。人們去那裡散步、冥想或參觀一些著名的名人墓地。這些人包括作家莫里哀(Moliere)、馬塞爾・普魯斯特(Marcel Proust)、詩人奧斯卡・王爾德(Oscar Wilde)、奧諾・德・巴爾扎克(Honore de Balzac)、音樂家弗雷德里克・蕭邦(Frederic Chopin)、流行樂手伊迪絲・皮亞芙(Edith Piaf)和吉姆·莫里森(Jim Morrison)。此外,拉雪茲神父公墓還以其美麗的墓碑和寧靜的氛圍而聞名,使其成為探索和遠離都市喧囂的理想的冥想之地。
The Père Lachaise Cemetery is one of the most famous cemeteries in the world, it is a destination in the outskirts of the city, whether visitors visiting Paris for dark tourism or not. People go there to have a walk, to meditate, or to visit some famous celebrities graves. These include Moliere, Oscar Wilde, Honore de Balzac, Frederic Chopin, Marcel Proust, Edith Piaf and Jim Morrison. Père Lachaise is also known for its beautiful gravestones and peaceful ambiance, making it a great meditate place to explore and get away from the urban bustle.

陸軍博物館和拿破崙墓 Army museum & Napoleon’s tomb
陸軍博物館(Army museum)是歐洲最大的軍事博物館之一,館藏豐富。其中有很多涉及了第一次世界大戰和第二次世界大戰的內容,以及關於大屠殺和冷戰的史料。該機構還擁有拿破崙・波拿巴的巨大衣冠塚。
One of Europe's premier military museums, which amongst many things have extensive, sections about World War one and two, also including about the Holocaust and the Cold war. This institution also boasts Napoleon Bonaparte's hugely oversized tomb. 


弗拉戈納爾博物館 Fragonard Museum
弗拉戈納德博物館(Fragonard Museum)是巴黎獸醫大學d'Alfort的一部分(簡稱ENVA),作為一個醫學展覽廳,它的常設展之一是解剖學展覽,其中展示許多包含人類屍體在內、保存完好的動物標本。
The Fragonard Museum, or Musée Fragonard in French. It is a part of Paris's veterinary university École nationale veterinaire d'Alfort (ENVA for short), is a medical exhibition with anatomical exhibits including preserved bodies. They exhibited both human or animals specimens. 

圖/文/ Christina Tseng

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